Ruaha represents the transition zone where southern and eastern African species of flora and fauna overlap, creating a unique variety of animals (1,650 species recorded), birds (529 species recorded) and vegetation. A portion of the park is along the Great Ruaha River, thought to follow an ancient finger of the Great Rift Valley system. This lowland area comprises mainly of Combretum/Commiphora and Acacia woodland, interspersed with areas that are abundant with majestic Baobab trees.
Elephants, zebra, impalas and giraffes are abundant. Both the greater and lesser kudu occur, as do the magnificent eland, sable and roan antelope. The Ruaha River provides an ecosystem on its own with its huge crocodiles and hippos. Ruaha has an abundance of predators, the lion population is very healthy and its common to see a pride with twenty or more members and/or large male lions with spectacular manes. Furthermore, the habitat is perfect for leopard. The African hunting dog also occurs in the park although their huge ranges make them more difficult to find. The same is the case with cheetah. Hyena and jackals are common camp visitors and often heard after dark – the whooping call and cackling laughter often splitting the night.